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Home > About hospital > Test Programme > Urine Test

Urine Test

A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. It is also an important test in making the diagnosis of kidney disease.
Kidneys can eliminate waste products, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood in the form of urine. Urine has hundreds of different body wastes. How well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine.
The major urine tests in urinalysis include the below tests.
In healthy condition, the urine is light yellow. Many things affect urine color. If the color of urine changes, it may indicate some health problems. Foamy urine and cola-colored urine is commonly seen in kidney disease.
Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine look cloudy.
Urine does not smell very strong. Some diseases can affect the urine to change its odor. For example, diabetes causes a fruity odor.
Specific gravity
This test measures the amount of substances in the urine. It also tells how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine.
The pH measures the level of acidic or alkaline in urine. A urine pH of 4 is strongly acidic, 7 is neutral (neither acidic nor alkaline), and 9 is strongly alkaline.
Only a small amount of protein is lost in urine. However, a variety of diseases and conditions may cause leakage of protein into urine, especially kidney disease, may cause protein to be in the urine.
Glucose is the type of sugar found in blood. Normally there is very little or no glucose in urine. When blood glucose level is very high, the glucose may spill into urine. Glucose can also be noticed in urine when the kidneys are damaged.
Red or white blood cells
Blood cells are not lost in urine in normal condition. Inflammation, disease, or injury to the kidneys, bladder, or urethra can cause blood in urine. In some cases, strenuous exercise may also contribute to red blood cells in urine. White blood cells may be a sign of infection or kidney disease.

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